Yongfeng Lu

Yongfeng Lu

Yongfeng Lu
Contact Information:
217N SEC
Lincoln: City Campus
(402) 472-8323

Lott Distinguished Professor
  • Ph.D., Osaka University, Japan, 1991
  • M.Eng., Osaka University, Japan, 1988
  • B.Eng., Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 1984

Areas of Research and Professional Interest
  • Carbon materials: diamond, carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions, graphene, etc.
  • Nanophotonics
  • Optical spectroscopy and imaging: Confocal Raman spectroscopy and imaging, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stocks Raman spectroscopy and imaging
  • Nanoscale laser material processing and characterization
  • Laser-assisted nanoimprinting
  • 2D and 3D nanomanufacturing employing scanning probe microscope
  • Surface cleaning and drying
  • Laser-assisted materials synthesis and processing
  • Molecular Level Surface Drying for Nanoelectronics
  • Controlled growth of carbon nanostructures, including carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, and carbon nanoonions (CNOs)
  • Supercapacitors
  • Nano-Raman spectroscopy
  • Two photon polymerization for 3D nanofabrication
  • Pulsed laser deposition
  • Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition
Courses Taught

About Yongfeng Lu

Dr. Lu obtained his B.Eng. degree in 1984 from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He received his M.Eng. and Ph.D. degrees from Osaka University, Japan, in 1988 and 1991, respectively. Upon graduation from Osaka University, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at the National University of Singapore, where he served in various positions. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in September 2002.

Dr. Lu has an extensive research background in the areas of laser-based microscale and nanoscale material processing. He has written over 220 peer-reviewed journal publications and over 160 presentations for international conferences. He has also received a number of national and international awards, including the National Technology Award (Singapore, 1998), Asean Engineering Achievement Award (Asean Engineering Association, 1999), and Laser International Award (Germany, 2000).

Dr. Lu has led the research group that pioneered laser removal of nanoparticles from solid surfaces (commonly known as laser cleaning) and nanoscale patterning by optical resonance in microparticles. He was among the first researchers to theoretically propose a model to explain the behaviors of nanoparticles on a solid surface under laser irradiation and to experimentally obtain subwavelength nanostructures using laser-induced optical resonance in nanospheres. His work encompasses a few important topics including laser writing of subwavelength structures, applications of laser removal of nanoparticles, behaviors of nanoparticles under laser irradiation, theoretical modeling, influence of laser wavelength, and particle removal with assistance of thin liquid films. He has also closely worked with industries and developed a few commercial products for laser etching, laser cleaning, laser cutting and laser surface texturing.


  • Multi-energy Processing for Novel Coating Technologies
  • Novel Supercapacitors Based on Nano-Structured Materials
  • Fast Growth of Large Diamond Crystals in Open Air
  • Low-Temperature Epitaxy of Gallium Nitride Thin Films
  • Synthesis of Crystalline Carbon Nitride by Simultaneous Vibrational and Electronic Excitations
  • Laser Manufacturing of Three-Dimensional Lightwave Circuits and Nano-Optical Devices
  • Coating and Patterning Diamond Films by Laser Resonant Bond Breaking in Polymer Precursors
  • MRI: Development of Multifunctional CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) Imaging System

Honors and Awards

Synergistic Activities:
  • National Technology Award (National Science and Technology Board, Singapore, 1998).
  • International Laser Award (Berthold Leibinger Innovationspreis, Berthold Leibinger Stiftung, Germany, 2000).
  • General Chair, International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics 2007 (ICALEO, October 29-November 1, 2007, Orlando, FL)
  • Board Member, Laser Institute of America, (2008-Present)
  • SPIE Fellow, (2008-Present)

Selected Publications

  1. J. B. Park, W. Xiong, Z. Q. Xie, Y. Gao, M. Qian, M. Mitchell, M. Mahjouri-Samani, Y. S. Zhou, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Transparent interconnections formed by rapid single-step fabrication of graphene patterns”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 053103 (2011) 2
  2. Y. Gao, Y. S. Zhou, M Qian, Z. Q. Xie, W. Xiong, H.F. Luo, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, "Fast growth of branched nickel monosilicide nanowires by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition", Nanotechnology, 22, 235602 (2011)
  3. M. Qian, Y. S. Zhou, Y. Gao, J. B. Park, T. Feng, S. M. Huang, Z. Sun, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Formation of graphene sheets through laser exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 173108 (2011)
  4. L. B. Guo, W. Hu, B. Y. Zhang, X. N. He, C. M. Li, Y. S. Zhou, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Enhancement of optical emission from laser-induced plasmas by combined spatial and magnetic confinement”, Opt. Express 19, 14067-14075. (2011)
  5. A. Veillère, T. Guillemet, Z. Q. Xie, C. A. Zuhlke, D. R. Alexander, J. F. Silvain, J. M. Heintz, N. Chandra, and Y. F. Lu, “Influence of WC-Co substrate pretreatment on diamond film deposition by laser-assisted combustion synthesis”, Appl. Mater. and Interfaces 3, 1134-1139 (2011)
  6. X. N. He, W. Hu, C. M. Li, L. B. Guo, Y. F. Lu, “Generation of high-temperature and low-density plasmas for improved spectral resolutions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy”, Opt. Express 19, 10997-11006 (2011)
  7. J. B. Park, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, M. Qian, Z. Q. Xie, M. Mitchell, Y. S. Zhou, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Fast growth of graphene patterns by laser direct writing”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 123109 (2011).
  8. L. B. Guo, C. M. Li, W. Hu, Y. S. Zhou, B. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Plasma confinement by hemispherical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131501 (2011).
  9. Z. Q. Xie, X. N. He, W. Hu, T. Guillemet, J. B. Park, Y. S. Zhou, J. Bai, Y. Gao, X.C. Zeng, L. Jiang, and Y.F. Lu, “Excitations of precursor molecules by different laser powers in laser-assisted growth of diamond films”, Crystal Growth & Design 10, 4928–4933 (2010).
  10. X. N. He, X. K. Shen, T. Gebre, Z. Q. Xie, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Spectroscopic Determination of Rotational Temperature in C2H4/C2H2/O2 Flames for Diamond Growth with and without Tunable CO2 Laser Excitation”, App. Opt., 49(9), 1555-1562 (2010).
  11. . Z. Q. Xie, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, J. B. Park, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Fast growth of diamond crystals in open air by combustion synthesis with resonant laser energy coupling”, Crystal Growth and Design, 10, 1762-1766(2010).
  12. M. Mahjouri-Samani, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, M. Mitchell, L. Jiang, Y. Y. Lu, “Diameter modulation by fast temperature control in laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotubes”, Nanotechnology 21, 395601 (2010)
  13. H. Wang, W. Q. Yang, C. B. Ma, and Y.F. Lu, “Design of two-dimensional tunable photonic crystal with multiple functionalities”, J. Nanosci. & Nanotech, 10(3), 1656-1662 (2010).
  14. M. Han, F.W. Guo, and Y.F. Lu, “Optical-fiber refractometer based on cladding-mode Bragg grating”, Opt. Lett. 35(3), 399-401 (2010)
  15. X. N. He, X. K. Shen, T. Gebre, Z. Q. Xie, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Spectroscopic Determination of Rotational Temperature in C2H4/C2H2/O2 Flames for Diamond Growth with and without Tunable CO2 Laser Excitation”, App. Opt., 49(9), 1555-1562(2010).
  16. Z. Y. Yang, M. Zhao, P. X. Lu, and Y. F. Lu, “Ultra-broadband optical circular polarizers consistingof double-helical nanowire structures”, Opt. Lett., 35(15), 2588-2590 (2010)
  17. T. McKindra, S. Patil, M. J. O’Keefe, Z. Q. Xie, and Y. F. Lu, “Characterization of diamond thin films deposited by a CO2 laser-assisted combustion-flame method”, Materials Characterization, 61, 661 – 667 (2010)
  18. Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, M. Mitchell, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Towards Carbon-Nanotube Integrated Devices: Optically Controlled Simultaneous Integration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes”, Nanotechnology, 21, 315601 (2010)
  19. W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, M. Mahjouri-Samani, W. Q. Yang, K. J. Yi, X. N. He, S. H. Liou, and Y. F. Lu, “Self-aligned growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes using optical near-field effects”, Nanotechnology, 20(2), 025601 (2009).
  20. Y. S. Zhou, K. J. Yi, M. Mahjouri-Samani, W. Xiong, Y. F. Lu, and S. H. Liou, “Image contrast enhancement in field-emission scanning electron microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 255(7), 4341-4346 (2009).
  21. H. Ling, Z. Q. Xie, Y. Gao, T. Gebre, X. K. Shen, and Y. F. Lu, “Enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond by wavelength-matched vibrational excitations of ethylene molecules using tunable CO2 laser irradiation”, J. Appl. Phys., 105(6), 064901, (2009).
  22. M Mahjouri-Samani, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, M. Mitchell, and Y. F. Lu, “Laser-assisted selective removal of metallic carbon nanotubes” Nanotechnology 20(49), 495202 (2009).
  23. Y. Gao, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, M. Mahjouri-Samani, M. Mitchell, and Y. F. Lu, "Controlled growth of carbon nanotubes on electrodes under different bias polarity", Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 143117 (2009)
  24. H. Wang and Y. F. Lu, “Core-shell photonic band gap structures fabricated using laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition”, J. Appl. Phys., 103(1), 013113 (2008).
  25. X. K. Shen and Y. F. Lu, “Detection of uranium in solids by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with laser-induced fluorescence”, Appl. Opt., 47(11), 1810-1815 (2008).
  26. K. J. Yi, X. N. He, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, and Y. F. Lu, “Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope and side-illumination optics”, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79(7), 073706 (2008).
  27. K. J. Yi, X. N. He, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong , Y. F. Lu , “Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope and side-illumination optics”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 051807 (2008)
  28. H. Ling, J. Sun, Y.X. Han , T. Gebre, Z.Q. Xie, M. Zhao, Y.F. Lu , “Laser-induced Resonant Excitation of Ethylene Molecules in Combustion-flame Diamond Deposition”, Submitted to J. Appl. Phys., 105, 014901 (2009)
  29. K. J. Yi, Z. Y. Yang, Y. F. Lu , “Fabrication of Electronically Active Nanostructures on silicon(110) Surfaces Using a Laser-Assisted Scanning Tunneling Microscope”, J. Appl. Phys., 103(5), 054307 (2008)
  30. H. Wang, Y.F. Lu , “Core-shell Photonic Bandgap Structures Fabricated Using Laser-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition”, in press, J. Appl. Phys., 103, 013113 (2007)
  31. Y.X. Han, H. Ling, J. Sun, M. Zhao, T. Gebre, Y.F. Lu, “Enhanced diamond nucleation on copper substrates by graphite seeding and CO2 laser irradiation”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 254, 2054-2058 (2007)
  32. Y.X. Han, M. Zhao, J. Sun, H. Ling, T. Gebre, Y.F. Lu, “Real-time monitoring of diamond nucleation and growth using field-enhanced thermionic emission current”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 254(5) , 1423-1426 (2007)
  33. X.K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, Y.F. Lu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced Al plasmas with cylindrical confinement”, J. Appl. Phys. , 102(9) , 093301 (2007)
  34. X.K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, Y.F. Lu, “Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91(8), 081501 (2007)
  35. Z.Y. Yang, Y.F. Lu, “Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers in UV-Visible-NIR regions”, Opt. Exp., 15(15) , 9510-9519 (2007)
  36. J. Zhang, R. Skomski, Y.F. Lu, and D.J. Sellmyer, “Temperature-dependent orbital-moment anisotropy in dilute magnetic oxides ”, Phys. Rev., B75(21), 214417 (2007)
  37. J. Zhang, R Skomski, L.P. Yue, Y.F. Lu, and D.J. Sellmyer, “Structure and magnetism of V-doped SnO2 thin films: effect of the substrate”, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 19 , 256204 (2007)
  38. K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y.F. Lu, Z. Y. Yang, “Enhanced Raman Scattering by Self-assembled Silica Spherical Microparticles”, J. Appl. Phys., 101(6) , 063528 (2007)
  39. H. Wang, Z.Y. Yang, Y.F. Lu, “Spherical Silicon-Shell Photonic Bandgap Structures Fabricated By Laser-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition”, J. Appl. Phys., 101 , 033129 (2007)
  40. S.M. Huang , Z. Sun , Y.F. Lu, “Nanofabrication by laser irradiation of polystyrene particle layers on silicon”, Nanotechnology, 18(2) , 025302 (2007)
  41. J. Zhang, X.Z. Li, J. Shi, Y.F. Lu, and D.J. Sellmyer, “Structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped ZnO thin films”, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 19 , 036210 (2007)
  42. Y.X. Han, H. Ling, Y.F. Lu, “KrF excimer laser-assisted combustion-flame deposition of diamond films”, J. Appl. Phys., 100(12) , 124911 (2006)
  43. X.Y. Chen, Y.F. Lu, Y.H. Wu, B.J. Cho, L.J. Tang, D. Lu, and J.R. Dong, “Correlation of optical properties and Si nanocrystal formation of Si-rich Si oxide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 253(5) , 2718-2726 (2006)
  44. J. Shi, Y.F. Lu , K. J. Yi , Y. S. Lin, S. H. Liou, J. B. Hou, and X.W. Wang , “Direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition ”, Appl. Phys. Lett. , 89(8) , 083105 (2006)
  45. X.K. Shen, Y.F. Lu, T. Gebre, H. Ling, Y.X. Han, “Optical emission in magnetically-confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy”, J. Appl. Phys., 100(5) , 053303 (2006)
  46. J. Shi, Y.F. Lu, H. Wang, K. J. Yi, Y. S. Lin, R. Zhang, S. H. Liou, “Synthesis of suspended carbon nanotubes on silicon inverse-opal structures by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition”, Nanotechnology, 17(15) , 3822–3826 (2006)
  47. H. Wang, K. K. Mendu, Y.F. Lu, J. Shi, D. R. Alexander and D. W. Doerr, “ Laser-assisted fabrication of 3-D structures on polymer film ”, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng., 1(2) , 106-110 (2006)
  48. J. Shi, Y .F. Lu, K .F. Tan, and X.W. Wang, “ Laser-pulverized nickel sulphate nanoparticles for catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers”, J. Appl. Phys., 99 , 024312 (2006)
  49. X.W. Wang and Y.F. Lu, “ Solidification and epitaxial regrowth in surface nanostructuring with laser-assisted scanning tunneling microscope ”, J. Appl. Phys., 98(11) , 114304 (2005)
  50. K. K. Mendu, J. Shi, Y.F. Lu, L. P. Li, N. Batta, D. W. Doerr and D. R. Alexander, “Fabrication of Multi-layered Inverse Opals Using Laser-Assisted Imprinting”, Nanotechnology, 16(9), 1965-1968 (2005)
  51. J. Shi, Y. F. Lu, X. Y. Chen, R. S. Cherukuri, K. K. Mendu, H. Wang, and N. Batta, “ Phase-graded Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon on Nanotips by Near-field Induced Chemical Vapor Deposition”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 86(13), 131918 (2005)
  52. X.Y. Chen, Y.F. Lu, L.J. Tang, Y.H. Wu, B.J. Cho, X.J. Xu, J.R. Dong, and W.D. Song, “Annealing and oxidation of silicon oxide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition”, J. Appl. Phys., 97(1), 014913 (2005)
  53. L.P. Li, Y.F. Lu, D.W. Doerr, D.R. Alexander and X.Y. Chen, “Parametric investigation of laser nanoimprinting of hemispherical cavity arrays”, J. Appl. Phys., 96(9) , 5144-5151 (2004)
  54. X.Y. Chen, Y.F. Lu, Y.H. Wu, B.J. Cho, W.D. Song and D.Y. Dai, “Optical properties of SiOx nanostructured films by pulsed-laser deposition at different substrate temperatures”, J. Appl. Phys., 96(6) , 3180-3186 (2004)
  55. L.P. Li, Y.F. Lu, D.W. Doerr, and D.R. Alexander, “Laser-assisted Nanopatterning of Aluminum Using Particle-induced Near-field Optical Enhancement and Nanoimprinting”, Nanotechnology, 15, 1655-1660 (2004)
  56. X.Y. Chen, Y.F. Lu, Y.H. Wu, B.J. Cho, B.J. Yang, and T.Y.F. Liew, “Laser annealing of silicon nanocrystal films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B22(4), 1731-1737 (2004)
  57. G.X. Chen, M.H. Hong, B. Lan, Z.B. Wang, Y.F. Lu, and T.C. Chong, “A convenient way to prepare magnetic colloids by direct Nd:YAG laser ablation”, Appl. Surf. Sci. 228(1-4): 169-175 (2004)
  58. Z.F. Hu, C.W. An, M.H. Hong, Y.F. Lu, and T.C. Chong, “ One-wavelength tuning method for a tunable optical filter based on a cascaded polarization interference filter”, Appl. Optics, 43(15) , 3145-3150 (2004)
  59. J. Shi, Y.F. Lu, R.S. Cherukuri, K.K. Mendu, D.W. Doerr, D.R. Alexander, L.P. Li, and X.Y. Chen, “ Laser-assisted nanoscale deposition of diamond-like carbon films on tungsten tips”, Appl. Phys. Lett., (85)9 , 1009-1011 (2004)
  60. Y.P. Zeng, Y.F. Lu, Z.X. Shen, W.X. Sun, T. Yu, L. Liu, J.N. Zeng, B.J. Cho, and C.H. Poon, “Raman spectroscopy investigation on excimer laser annealing and thickness determination of nanoscale amorphous silicon”, Nanotechnology, 15(5) , 658-662 (2004)

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